Monday, November 3, 2014


centre-perforated film, intended for the amateur and semi-professional market in 1899

Bioscope (Charles Urban)
Warwick Bioscope, c1900. Designed in the USA for Urban by Walter Isaacs in 1897 and sold in Britain, this projector used a beater movement 

Bioskop (Max Skladanowsky)
Projector that used two loops of 54 mm film, with images projected alternately, 1895

Birtac (Birt Acres)
The Birtac narrow gauge camera / printer / projector for film, set up for projection 

Cinématographe (Auguste Lumière-Louis Lumière)
1. Lumière Cin&eacutematographe in use as a camera c.1896 (with unusual film take-up chamber)

Cinématographe (Auguste Lumière-Louis Lumière)
2. Lumière Cin&eacutematographe set up for projection, 1895-96

Cinéorama (Raoul Grimoin-Sanson)
Ten synchronised cameras arranged in a circle filmed a balloon ascent from the balloon basket. The intention was that ten projectors would recreate the experience on a circular screen

Electrical Schnellseher (Ottomar Anschütz)
Coin-operated arcade version, with images on celluloid arranged around a disc, c1892

Electrotachyscope (Ottomar Anschütz)
Early version, with glass positives arranged around a disc, 1887

Electrotachyscope (projecting) (Ottomar Anschütz)
Drawing showing two large picture discs, each with twelve images, projected alternately, 1894

Filoscope (Henry Short)
A flip-book, patented in 1898, encased in a metal cover and operated by applying thumb pressure on a lever. Featuring lithographed images, mostly from films made by R.W. Paul

Kammatograph (Leo Kamm)
Camera / projector with miniature images arranged in a spiral on a glass disc, patented 1898

Kineoptoscope (Riley Brothers)
35 mm film projector with claw movement, based on Wray's design. Free-standing model, 1897

Kinesigraph (Wordsworth Donisthorpe)
Camera for unperforated film, unusual shuttle movement, patented with W.C. Crofts 1889

Kinetic Camera (Birt Acres)
Birt Acres' Kinetic Camera for 35mm perforated film, 1895

Kinetograph (George De Bedts)
De Bedts Kinetograph, 1896. A combined camera-projector mechanism. Illustrated in projection mode, with water tank cooler between light source and film

Kinetograph (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
Camera (the first to use perforated film stock) for producing subjects for the Kinetoscope peepshow machine. Developed over several years, and shotting commercially-used films from 1893

Kinetophone (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
Kinetoscope with Phonograph cylinder audio player built in and earphones, 1895

Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
1. Kinetoscope - interior view. The 35 mm film travelled continuously over a bank of rollers, each picture being viewed briefly through a narrow slot in the revolving shutter

Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
2. Kinetoscope - exterior view. Electrically-driven peepshow machine for films produced with Kinetograph camera. 1894

Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
3. Peter Bacigalupi's Kinetoscope parlour, San Francisco, 1894 or 1895

Kinetoscope (W.K-L. Dickson-Thomas Edison)
4. Kinetoscope plan view, showing continuous film mechanism and single thin aperture in shutter

Kinora (Herman Casler-Louis Lumière)
The first clockwork Kinora mechanism, as manufactured by Gaumont

Magniscope (Edward Amet)
Amet Magniscope 35mm film projector, 1896. A portable machine popular with travelling showmen. © American Museum of the Moving Image

Mutagraph (Herman Casler)
Mutagraph-Biograph camera for 68/70 mm film, c1897

Mutoscope (Herman Casler)
Hand-cranked viewer for exhibiting a reel of photographs printed from a motion picture film. Commercialised 1896

Panoptikon (Woodville Latham)
Primitive projector, in which the two-inch film moved continuously. The first to be used for commercial film shows in 1895. Later (as the Eidoloscope) an intermittent mechanism was added

Phantascope (J.A.A. Rudge)
Phantascope (or Biphantascope), 1870s. Seven slides were mounted in a carousel that travelled around the lantern body intermittently

Phantoscope (C. Francis Jenkins)
Beater movement version used in October 1895

Phonoscope (Georges Demenÿ)
Phonoscope (Gaumont-Demenÿ) - also known as the Bioscope - set up for projection, 1895

Photo-Rotoscope (W.C. Hughes)
Hughes Photo-Rotoscope projector, 1898, with beater movement

Praxinoscope (Émile Reynaud)
1877, version with crank handle

Projecting Kinetoscope (Thomas Edison)
Edison Projecting Kinetscope with spoolbank, 1897

Tachyscope (Ottomar Anschütz)
Drum version of the Anschütz Tachyscope (also known as the Schnellseher), 1890. Showed five sets of moving images simultaneously. Transparencies were continuously moving, each illuminated by a brief spark.

Thaumatographe (Oskar Messter)
Messter Thaumtographe camera for 35 mm film, 1896

Théâtre Optique (Émile Reynaud)
A theatrical projection version of Reynaud's Praxinoscope, using a band of painted characters superimposed on a background projected from a separate lantern. Patented 1888, in commercial use from 1892. Later, photographic images were used

Theatrograph (Robert Paul)
The Theatrograph no. 2, mark 1, as presented by Robert Paul to the Science Museum in 1913

Vitascope (Thomas Armat-Thomas Edison)
Vitascope 35 mm film projector, originally developed by Thomas Armat (with C. Francis Jenkins), and sold to Edison, 1896

Zoöpraxiscope (Eadweard Muybridge)
Muybridge's Zoöpraxiscope, 1879 (modified 1892/3). © 2004 Kingston Museum and Heritage Centre, Surrey